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Complex refractive index

Abstract: Characterizes the propagation of a light wave in a medium in which there is a loss of energy, that is, the electromagnetic wave experiences attenuation, due to various loss mechanisms such as the generation of phonons (lattice waves), photogeneration, free carrier absorption, scattering, etc.

Keywords: Refractive index, Laser Sensor.

References &Academic research:

[1] Dictionary of Optoelectronics and Photonics, Safa Kasap (University of Saskatchewan, Canada), Harry Ruda (University of Toronto, Canada ), Yann Boucher (ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Brest, France).

[2] ELECTRO-OPTICS HANDBOOK , McGRAW-HILL, INC. New York San Francisco Washington,D.C. Auckland Bogota´ Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto.

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Laser sensors Safety Standards and Safety Classifications

Abstract: The primary concern in laser sensor safety is the possibility of eye injury. A secondary one is damage
to the skin. Biological effects of laser light may depend on a number of factors including the wavelength
of the light, its power, whether it possesses a continuous wave nature or is pulsed, or whether it is the result
of a direct exposure of laser light rather than a diffuse reflection.
Lasers are to be treated with great respect and caution.

Keywords: Safety Standars, Laser Sensor, Laser Diodes, Safety Classifications.

References &Academic research:
[1] Handbook of modern sensor J. Fraden Springer 4ième ed 2010.

[2] 2004 High Frequency Electronics (Basic Operation of Optical Detectors).

[3] Light Sources and Laser Safety Fred Seeber Camden County College Blackwood, New Jersey-2015.

[4] Bart Elias; Wessels, G (2005). “Lasers Aimed at Aircraft Cockpits: Background and Possible Options to Address
the Threat to Aviation Safety and Security.

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Lifetime and reliability of sensor laser

Abstract: Degradation analysis is a crucial issue for the improvement of sensor laser diodes. Degradation occurs
in three different modes: rapid, gradual and catastrophic. It can be located inside the cavity or at the facet
mirrors. Each type of degradation presents its own signature and different crystal defects appear associated
with them. The main physical mechanisms responsible for laser degradation are analyzed showing
the relation between the main degradation modes and the different materials properties
of the laser structures.

Keywords: Lifetime, Laser Sensor, Reliability, Laser Diodes

References & Academic research:

[1] Fukuda, Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs, MA, Norwood:Artech House, 1991.

[2] A 1.3-µm GaInNAs Laser Diode with a Lifetime of over 1000 Hour Masahiko Kondow1, Takeshi Kitatani 1,Tanaka 3 1999 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

[3] Reliability of Semiconductor Laser Packaging in Space Applications Ivair Gontijo, Yueming Qiu, Andrew A. Shapiro
Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, California, 91109, USA.

[4] Watzke, S.; Altieri-Weimar, P. Degradation of silicone in white LEDs during device operation: A finite element
approach to product reliability prediction. Microelectron. Reliab. 2015, 55, 733–73.

[5] Handbook of modern sensor J. Fraden Springer 4ième ed 2010.

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